231 Front Street, Lahaina, HI 96761 [email protected] 808.123.4567

‘Back to School’ costs a huge burden on parents

first_imgAS thousands of children prepare to return to school, or start for the first time, many parents are finding it difficult to cope with the financial burden placed on them.The Government’s Back to School Clothing and Footwear Allowance assists those below a certain income threshold; that is €563.60 per month for a couple with one child, and €410.10 for single parent families with one child, increasing by €29.80 for each additional child.Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up However, many families earning just above the limit are finding the cost of simply sending their children to school to be financially crippling.One Limerick mother, whose daughter is a pupil at a county Limerick school, has already spent in excess of €350 on the required school uniform…and that’s only for starters.“We were told by the school that we can only purchase all parts of the uniform at a specific shop in Limerick,” she told the Limerick Post.“There are plenty of other places where we could have bought the skirts, shirts and jumpers cheaper, but they all have to be the exact same and have the school crests on them.“With a child entering secondary school for the first time they have enough challenges facing them trying to fit in, without standing out in the wrong uniform, so parents are under pressure to get all the right gear.“As well as the uniform, they are required to have a tracksuit with the crest on the jumper and bottoms. I could imagine the pressure on parents sending two of their children to school”.The tracksuit top and bottoms come in at €50 apiece, while the crested blazer costs €70 and the skirt another €70.   There is also a jacket, pullover, shirts, socks and shoes to purchase, and that’s before any school books are bought.Then there are the costs involved in booking a pupil on the school bus-if necessary- for a term.However, one parent of a primary school student is of the opinion that uniforms are a blessing.“I would go mad if I didn’t have a uniform for her and had to pick out what she was going to wear every morning.“There would also be a lot of competition to have the best brands among the children, as there always is.“I really like the crested jackets and uniforms.“They look really smart”.The mother of a senior infants pupil at a city school, has forked out €245 to send her daughter to school, but has no qualms in doing so.“I don’t mind; I want her to have the best of everything, and I always put her children’s allowance away for that purpose, so I’m not panicking when it comes to back to school time.“But I buy two pinafores, two cardigans and two shirts, because as a working mom, I wouldn’t have time to wash and iron them every day.“I only have the one child, so I can understand the pressure on parents of two, three or four children”. Email Advertisement NewsLocal News‘Back to School’ costs a huge burden on parentsBy admin – August 30, 2011 645 Twitter Linkedincenter_img Facebook WhatsApp Previous articleIn at the deep end – Cooking fish from Venice to TokyoNext articleWallace and Jones face lengthy lay offs admin Printlast_img read more

Rent vs. Buy: The Regions with Most Renters

first_imgHome / Daily Dose / Rent vs. Buy: The Regions with Most Renters Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago A recent study by the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) indicated that renting was more popular in some cities than others. The study, which examined the type of rental structures people live in and their spatial distribution said that the number of renters expanded to reach 34% of the population between 2007 and 2017. The share was at 30% in 2007.The reasons, the NAHB study said was the disruption of home construction during the Great Recession and the more recent declining affordability to own homes. In fact, single-family rentals or detached rentals accounted for 40% of all the rental stock between 2007 and 2017 more than any other structure type. The Southeast and the West, the study indicated, had the highest concentration of renters, especially for single-family homes according to data from the 2017 American Community Survey.Merced (59.7%), Visalia-Porterville (53.8%), Modesto (53.2%), Stockton-Lodi (52.4%) and Bakersfield (51.7%), all in California, had the highest concentration of homes for rent according to the study. In fact, these cities also had the highest number of foreclosures during the Great Recession. The study revealed that these numbers indicated “an association between areas with high foreclosure rates and detached rental units.”The study also revealed that areas with higher rentals also indicated low-income communities “who cannot afford to buy a home, but are looking for more space than what a typical rental apartment would typically provide.”Looking at townhomes, the study found that these housing units accounted for 10% of rental stock growth between 2007 and 2017. However, the NAHB said that these type of homes made up the largest share of new construction rental segment or single-family built-for-rent homes. These type of rentals, the study said were mostly found in Lebanon, Pennsylvania (28.4%), Philadelphia (27.7%), and Baltimore (27.1%). The southeast coastal areas and the west coast have moderate concentrations of attached rental units, it revealed.Additionally, the study indicated that these homes were most common in areas with space constraints. “Research also shows that millennials want to live in medium-density, walkable developments. Going forward, areas with higher shares of millennials may see growth in this structure type,” the NAHB study said.Click here to read the full study. Buyers HOUSING NAHB Rent Renters SFR Single-Family Rentals Townhomes 2019-09-25 Radhika Ojha Radhika Ojha is an independent writer and copy-editor, and a reporter for DS News. She is a graduate of the University of Pune, India, where she received her B.A. in Commerce with a concentration in Accounting and Marketing and an M.A. in Mass Communication. Upon completion of her masters degree, Ojha worked at a national English daily publication in India (The Indian Express) where she was a staff writer in the cultural and arts features section. Ojha, also worked as Principal Correspondent at HT Media Ltd and at Honeywell as an executive in corporate communications. She and her husband currently reside in Houston, Texas. Share Save Tagged with: Buyers HOUSING NAHB Rent Renters SFR Single-Family Rentals Townhomes Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Related Articles Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days agocenter_img Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago About Author: Radhika Ojha The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago September 25, 2019 1,527 Views The Week Ahead: Nearing the Forbearance Exit 2 days ago Sign up for DS News Daily  Print This Post Previous: Keys for Life Concert Celebrates Industry, Vets Next: Where Bad Credit Can Be Repaired Rent vs. Buy: The Regions with Most Renters in Daily Dose, Featured, Market Studies, News Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago Subscribelast_img read more

Reproductive Justice Not ‘Personhood Of Foetus’: Lessons Learnt From Safoora Zargar’s Experience

first_imgColumnsReproductive Justice Not ‘Personhood Of Foetus’: Lessons Learnt From Safoora Zargar’s Experience Kalpana Kannabiran27 Jun 2020 1:51 AMShare This – xThe question that needs to be settled through judicial deliberation is not pregnancy as a standalone fact and its relation to bail, but pregnancy as embedded in the larger field of the gendered tropes of personal autonomy, freedom from surveillance, and the right of minorities to dignity, personhood and citizenship.NOT ROE VS. WADE Safoora Zargar’s case raises critical questions relating to legal regimes and reasoning that must inform the jurisprudence of human rights and civil liberties. Justice Shakdher of Delhi High Court, who granted bail to Zargar, raised the question of the line of reasoning that would apply to a pregnant woman in custody. Advocate Nithya Ramakrishnan (The Wire, 24…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginNOT ROE VS. WADE Safoora Zargar’s case raises critical questions relating to legal regimes and reasoning that must inform the jurisprudence of human rights and civil liberties. Justice Shakdher of Delhi High Court, who granted bail to Zargar, raised the question of the line of reasoning that would apply to a pregnant woman in custody. Advocate Nithya Ramakrishnan (The Wire, 24 June 2020) appearing for Zargar, prepared a note that turned on the ‘personhood of the foetus’ reflecting at length on the 1972 US case Roe vs. Wade, a widely discussed and contested case on abortion and reproductive choice. In setting out Zargar’s case within the framework of Roe vs. Wade and deliberating at length on the right of the unborn child, Ramakrishnan draws in arguments on international law and standard setting in domestic jurisprudence. However, she provides a line of reasoning that pro-natalist movements in the west have historically used to deny abortion rights and reproductive autonomy to women – pitting ‘foetal rights’ against the rights of the woman seeking abortion. Without dwelling at length on the pitfalls in this argument, its anti-minority/class and race bias in the US and elsewhere, as well as the inadequacy of the pro-life/pro-choice binary in discussions on reproductive autonomy need to be flagged. In this note, I attempt to draw out a different line of reasoning that does not lose sight of context, specificity and intersections, in the hope that more will join in the debate and we can evolve, together, a reasonable and just standard for the law that is mindful of reproductive justice and gendered personhood and rights. Rupturing the seamless narration of foetal rights in the west, Lola Olufemi (2020) points to the repeal in 2018 of the 8th Amendment of the Irish constitution that equated the life of the person carrying the foetus to the life of the unborn foetus — a move that made abortion legal in that country. Therefore, even in invoking international standards, it is important to play close attention to which international standards we invoke and whose interests they subserve. We are now in 2020 at a moment far ahead of the Roe vs. Wade moment of 1972. The question is one of ‘reproductive justice’ and ‘bodily autonomy,’ not one of the ‘personhood of the foetus’ vs. the right to choice. ‘Reproductive justice’ –a term coined by black women in 1994 – is recalled by Olufemi, for moving the discussion from rights to justice, thus broadening the debate on dignity and taking note of ‘intersectional oppressions’ of supremacist, misogynist, neoliberal regimes (Olufemi 2020: 40). At a time when we are grappling with the intersectional meanings of Black Lives Matter especially in a supremacist Hindutva setting, the kinship between and interlocking of supremacist regimes, as also the similarities in their technologies of gendered rule, oppressions and persecution can scarcely escape our attention.[1] THE CASE OF SAFOORA ZARGAR This is the case of a Muslim woman from Kashmir – pregnant at the time of her arrest for her resistance against the Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019 (CAA). This, as is widely known, is an Act that disenfranchises Muslims in India in a manner that renders them vulnerable to religious persecution, targeted violence and dispossession from citizenship in unprecedented ways – with both state and non-state actors acting in close concert. The comparison has often been made between the present time and Partition violence. And yet, except for our sense of horror at wanton violence, these two moments are not comparable. Partition was an anomic moment. The year 2020 is not 1947. We have had a constitution in place for seventy years that guarantees what Mignolo and Walsh call a ‘pluriversal democracy’ (2018) with six preambular keywords that have guided its travels: justice, liberty, equality, fraternity, dignity, and nation (Rathore 2019). We have had fully functional institutions of government, law and justice that have (warts and all) provided us with a voice and vote to contest and question arbitrariness and mis-rule. The CAA belongs to this present moment. The figure of Safoora Zargar represents the unprecedented resistance by Muslim women to the derailment of the constitution by law. Her entrapment in the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, 1967 (UAPA) for inciting collective violence that targeted Muslims in North-east Delhi in February 2020 is part of the state response to criminalizing resistance by, with and on behalf of Muslims (we have seen several other arrests and chargesheets as well in the intervening period between Safoora’s arrest and her release on bail). Whether or not bail was argued on merits, it is important to contexualise the ‘humanitarian grounds’ conceded by the state in the matter of her release. The arrest of a pregnant Zargar in April 2020 and her incarceration for two months cannot be viewed apart from the persecution of minorities through vigilantism on ‘love jihad’, sexualised hate speech, sexual humiliation, demographic profiling, and other forms of sexual and reproductive harms that we have increasingly been witness to. The focus on her pregnancy, therefore, need not take the route of foetal rights at all, but simply stay with her right to protection against reproductive and pre-natal harms, and reproductive autonomy as a critical aspect of dignity and the right to privacy. As a point of clarification, I use ‘prenatal harms’ in a very specific manner embedding it in the larger understanding of sexual and reproductive harms. ‘Prenatal harms’ in this scheme is distinct from and in opposition to anti-abortion/pro-natalist positions that further the ‘rights of the unborn,’ or posit the ‘personhood of the foetus.’ THINKING THROUGH A DIFFERENT APPROACH I believe that hers is not a case of the ‘rights of the unborn’ but one of Zargar’s fundamental right to privacy, reproductive justice and protection against the wilful exposure to prenatal harms as part of an exposure to reproductive harms. Indian Penal Code Sections 312 to 315 Indian Penal Code set out the offence of causing miscarriage: voluntarily causing a pregnant woman to miscarry with sentence varying between stages of pregnancy (312); causing miscarriage without the consent of the woman (313); causing the death of a woman because of miscarriage with sentence varying between cases where woman consented and those where she did not consent (314); preventing the birth of a child or causing its death immediately after birth except where such death of child occurs in an effort to save life of mother (315). With the exception of Section 313, it must be noted that all these sections focus both on reproductive harms suffered by the woman (i.e. when she does not consent) and criminalizes termination of pregnancy by a woman, both. Section 316 IPC places the life of the woman and her ‘quick unborn child’ on par, holding a person who causes death of either guilty of culpable homicide. These sections are a double-edged sword and can only be used in carefully qualified ways, certainly not as blanket positions on the ‘rights of the unborn.’ While making a clear distinction between women’s right to reproductive autonomy and the imposition of reproductive harms, this case is one in which incarceration inflicts reproductive harms on a woman under conditions of custody. It is also to be borne in mind that she was arrested in early pregnancy and spent two months in jail. ‘Causing’ harm therefore cannot be calculated in terms of its immediate and proximate relationship to the ‘harm’, which also need not be limited to miscarriage, but must extend to any form of reproductive morbidity that may occur through her pregnancy and post-natal/post-partum condition. It is also harm that casts a shadow on her enjoyment of ‘reproductive futures,’ to borrow from Olufemi. To consider its effects as limited to this disaggregated episode of incarceration that spanned two months of her pregnancy would be a travesty of justice. This is the ‘humanitarian ground’ that unfolds before the law in Zargar’s case. Right to Privacy & International Law This is as far as the specific consideration of pregnant women in custody is concerned. Religious personal laws and property laws are deeply patriarchal, reify women and speak of the rights of the unborn (including those not conceived or even contemplated). It is far from productive for our present purposes, therefore, to explore the rights of a pregnant woman through that route, as it is structurally inadequate for building a case of reproductive freedoms and justice. It is no secret that these laws are extremely discriminatory on grounds of gender, and courts have deliberated at length in order to free up spaces for women to exercise autonomy in limited ways in customary spaces of marriage, family and community. We need instead to place the right to reproductive justice in Zargar’s case within the framework of the fundamental right to privacy as set out by the Supreme Court in Puttaswamy and the cases that followed and drew upon it like Navtej Johar (that decriminalized homosexuality), Independent Thought (that criminalized marital rape in the case of minors) and Joseph Shine (that decriminalized adultery). While each of these cases draw on international law, it is important to consider also the enunciation of reproductive harms in the definition of ‘crimes against humanity’ in the Rome Statute. Section 7(1)(g) lists the following: ‘Rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity.’ Of these, forced pregnancy and forced sterilization are reproductive harms that are part of collective and targeted violence, and genocide. In a case of persecution by incarceration, prenatal harms logically fall in step with reproductive harms and must be considered as such – for it marks the Article 21 line — liberty in its suspension throws life in peril. The question that needs to be settled through judicial deliberation is therefore, not pregnancy as a standalone fact and its relation to bail, but pregnancy as embedded in the larger field of the gendered tropes of personal autonomy, freedom from surveillance, and the right of minorities to dignity, personhood and citizenship as set out in the Preamble to affirm the non-negotiable right to dignity of all persons, eschewing pro-natalist, homophobic, patriarchal reasoning. In this scheme, it is immaterial that till this time pregnancy has not been a ground for bail. The Puttaswamy court, we believe, changed this forever through its deliberative reasoning, resurrection of dissents and its performance of constitutional insurgency. The question before us – citizens and courts alike – is, why should pregnancy not be a valid ground for bail? Does the denial of bail to a pregnant woman not amount to disproportionate and discriminatory treatment under the constitution? Should reproductive harms not be a consideration both in the matter of pre-trial custody and in the matter of bail – and more generally in the matter of sentencing? PANDEMIC VULNERABILITIES, PANDEMIC JURISPRUDENCE The COVID 19 pandemic is not the first time pandemic vulnerabilities and their intersection with sexual and reproductive justice has been brought before courts. We cannot but help recall Naz Foundation, which asserted the need to radically transform the law in order to ensure the survival, life and dignity of persons irrespective of gender and sexual orientation. The demand for the decriminalization of homosexuality was brought before the court in the context of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, urging the court to recognise the exceptional vulnerability faced by LGBTQI+ persons in India criminalised by Section 377 IPC. Arbitrary and illegal arrest and detention on the one side, access to health care, treatment, life, liberty and fulfilment on the other. When faced with the choice, the Naz court stood on the side of life and liberty with dignity and the grant of full sexual and reproductive justice to all persons. To this end, the Delhi High Court has before it, its own ruling on intersectional justice in times of a pandemic, that then extend to normal times, setting up in the process, new thresholds for the normal. Safoora Zargar’s case, like Naz, is a case of the threat to life and liberty via reproductive harms aggravated by pandemic conditions. It is neither coincidental nor accidental nor inadvertent that Zargar was arrested when the COVID 19 lockdown had just been declared. It was also not an accident that she was arrested when she was pregnant, because the investigating officers who interrogated her for seven hours prior to her arrest were informed of her pregnancy; when they re-arrested her after she secured bail the first time, they knew she was pregnant; when they opposed her bail in the Patiala House court in Delhi as well they knew. The ‘humanitarian grounds’ conceded in the Delhi High Court were looming large over each of these prior moves by the state. What this then amounts to is disproportionate punishment even before the trial has commenced. This is perhaps one of the things Professor Baxi alludes to when he uses the phrase ‘pandemic of impunity’ (2013). Be that as it may, both in terms of pandemic jurisprudence and personal autonomy, we have a line of reasoning inaugurated by Naz, reiterated by Puttaswamy and sealed by Navtej Johar. Dignity, personal autonomy and reproductive justice lie at the core of full personhood and full citizenship. Finally, we have an unfinished task before us. The Puttaswamy court pointed in the direction of dismantling the ‘pandemic of impunity’ through its resurrection of dissents in cases of state impunity. But we await its reiteration, realisation and consolidation, especially in the cases of the arrests of other peaceful resisters against the CAA and in the case of those arrested under the UAPA – all of whom are being subjected to disproportionate punishment endangering their lives right under the protective umbrella of the Puttaswamy ruling.(Kalpana Kannabiran is Professor & Director at Council for Social Development, Hyderabad) References Baxi, Upendra, 2013. ‘Foreword.’ In Vahida Nainar and Saumya Uma, eds. Pursuing Elusive Justice: Mass Crimes in India and Relevance of International Standards. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Olufemi, Lola 2020. Feminism, Interrupted: Disrupting Power. London: Pluto Press. ‘In Considering Bail for a Pregnant Woman, the Personhood of Her Fetus Has to Be a Factor.’ The Wire. https://thewire.in/law/in-considering-bail-for-a-pregnant-woman-the-personhood-of-her-fetus-has-to-be-a-factor. Accessed on 26 June 2020. Mignolo, Walter D. and Catherine E. Walsh, 2018. On Decoloniality: Concepts, Analytics, Praxis. Durham: Duke University Press. Nainar, Vahida 2013. ‘Crimes against Humanity in India: Towards a Legal Understanding,’ in Vahida Nainar and Saumya Uma, eds. Pursuing Elusive Justice: Mass Crimes in India and Relevance of International Standards. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Rathore, Aakash Singh, 2019. Ambedkar’s Preamble: A Secret History of the Constitution of India. New Delhi: Penguin Books. Cases Independent Thought v. Union of India MANU/SC/1298/2017. Joseph Shine v. Union of India AIR 2018 SC 4898. Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) v. Union of India (2017) 10 SCC 1 [Puttaswamy]. Navtej Singh Johar v. Union of India (2018) 10 SCC 1. Naz Foundation v. NCT of Delhi 2009 (160) DLT 277. Roe v. Wade 410 U.S. 113 (1973). [1] Section 7(2)(g) of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court defines the crime of ‘Persecution’ as ‘the intentional and severe deprivation of fundamental rights contrary to international law by reason of the identity of the group or collectivity.’ See Vahida Nainar, 2013, p. 387. Next Storylast_img read more

‘Health Over Exams’: Why NEET-JEE Exams Should Be Postponed?

first_imgColumns’Health Over Exams’: Why NEET-JEE Exams Should Be Postponed? Anubha Shrivastava Sahai23 Aug 2020 10:04 PMShare This – xWe have been receiving complaints from across India from parents and students for conducting JEE AND NEET University Exams in September during this pandemic situation when the cases are rising daily and due to lack of medical facility citizens are not getting proper treatment and even beds in Hospital. WHO has also acknowledged emerging evidence on airborne spread of COVID -19…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginWe have been receiving complaints from across India from parents and students for conducting JEE AND NEET University Exams in September during this pandemic situation when the cases are rising daily and due to lack of medical facility citizens are not getting proper treatment and even beds in Hospital. WHO has also acknowledged emerging evidence on airborne spread of COVID -19 which is a very serious concern and will spread very fast in a public place. Parents are very worried as cases are rising and proper medical facility is also not available so they are very stressed as to how to visit the examination center during such situation for appearing for the exam. The situation is very alarming and getting worse day by day and any such decision will put life of lakhs of students under risk . In containment zone and non-containment zone also it is not possible practically to conduct exams with the rising COVID-19 cases. Students will be under a lot of stress during the exam and will be mentally and physically harassed. The recent MHA Guidelines dt 31/07/2020 also has suggested to keep the educational institutions shut till 31st August and there is no clarity if the exams are going to be conducted or not. In this situation of COVID -19 , it is not a feasible option for students to sit and give exams (there are some reports that the virus is even airborne) Many of the students have returned to their hometowns in different states,so travelling back to the states to give exams would not only endanger their lives, but their parents lives too. Non-availability of safe public transports to get to the examination halls – not everyone can afford to rent a cab to give the exams daily . Right now students are safe as they are at home. The moment they will be exposed, chances of getting an infection are very high due to Covid 19 being airborne. It is to be asked as to who will take responsibility if anything happens to any student as parents will have to run from pillar to post to get the children treated in the Hospital. The SC has also taken suo moto cognizance and issued notice to some states seeking status report of Hospital Infrastructure. So students in these states will suffer due to overburdened medical infrastructure if anything happens to them. Moreover, Indian Railways has also issued a notification for suspension of central railways and travelling in public transport will be very risky for these students. Students are mentally and physically not prepared for these exams.  SOME OF THE ISSUES STUDENTS ARE FACING The student community have a say in the matters concerning them. The following concerns the same about the demands of students appearing for JEE and NEET, 2020: Well, first of all we want to make our stand clear- None of us wants a cancellation of exam. What we are demanding is a postponement in this unprecedented time so as to avoid any loss in any form be it life or career. Now that cancellation vs. postponement is clear, let’s get to the demands and details of JEE and NEET students. As of now, the JEE-MAIN is scheduled to be conducted from 1-6 September, NEET on 13th September and JEE-Advanced on 27th September.The exams were indeed postponed in JULY when the new aforementioned dates were announced, keeping in mind the Covid-19 situation prevalent in the country at that time. The above graph clearly shows the scary exponential growth of Covid-19 new infections in India. At the time of announcement of postponement, the new cases reported were around 22k-23k daily. However, since then, the situation has only got worse and now we are in a phase when the daily reported cases have well breached the 55k mark. As on 1st August, the new cases reported are 57,486. In this situation, amidst such a drastic increase in the number of covid 19 infections, it is absolutely wrong to conduct a national level exam which have an enormous amount of candidates appearing for it. The number of students appearing for JEE and NEET combined is huge. With almost 10 Lakh appearing for JEE and almost 16 lakh appearing for NEET, a combined total of about 25lakh+ candidates are to appear for these exams. Now, since these exams are the gateway to premiere institutes in INDIA, parents are equally worried, and as usual, parents will accompany their ward to the exam Centre. Even If we consider1 parent per aspirant, that adds on to about 25 lakh more people, all going out the same time, anxious about their wards, with absolutely nothing in mind but their ward’s wellbeing. The crowd will be huge and naturally social distancing norms will take a backseat, especially with the amount of stress and anxiety the parents and the aspirants will be going through.The exams were first scheduled to be in the month of April, when the cases were unimaginably less compared to the cases today. The government postponed the exam at that time keeping the health risks in mind. Similarly, the authorities postponed the JULY dates of the citing the lockdown in several states and the then existing pandemic situation of the country, and we are really thankful to the authorities for that. But now, the situation has changed for the worse and there’s an even more health risk, an even more big of a reason to postpone the exams. There are even more convincing evidences of the virus being airborne now and conducting an exam of such a magnitude will only result in a disaster.JEE and NEET are national level exams conducted throughout the country. Naturally, the number of personnel required will be huge and more the people, more the feast for the virus.The transportation facilities throughout the country are on hold. The Railways remain closed and public transports are either very less or not accessible at all. Additionally, public transport pose even more risk of contracting the virus because of the number of interactions one would have with the public.The number of exam centres are far less than required. Due to the virus, the social distancing norms will have to be followed inside the centres. This makes things tricky as one would need a lot more centres for an exam of such magnitude to be successfully conducted. JEE Main is an online exam. It is quite difficult to increase the number of exam centers as the infrastructure for online conduct of exam is not that good in the country. Moreover, there are only a few exam centers in any states. For example, the state of Bihar has only 7centers for JEE Main. With such a huge number of students, is it really possible to maintain social distancing in just 7centers? (From there over 1 Lakh candidate appear for this exam). For NEET, it’s even worse. There are centres in only 2 districts.Even if we hypothetically consider that the social distancing norms will be followed inside the centres, what about the equivalent number of the crowd outside them? Some states conducted the exams despite opposition and we got to see how social distancing norms took a backseat and people were not even wearing masks.Any type of SOP put forth will look good and convincing on paper only. On the ground, such protocols are highly unrealistic and we have seen examples of that.Inside the exam centres, there are several complications too. Like the use of same thumbprint scanner, same seats for face verification, crowded computer rooms, less distance between fixed- unmovable seats, limited number of computers etc. Yes, in some places they might be managed somehow, but in most others, they can’t be. Add on that the fact that you’ll be asked to wait for the Washrooms to be vacant even if you have emergency and are already under stress for losing time in exam. The anxiety and risks will be insane.There are many students who would’ve to travel several 100 kilometres in order to reach their exam centre. With such a long journey on cards, there’s an almost impeccable chance that they will indeed contact the virus. Unknowingly thy will act as carriers and will create a chain that could lead to a disaster.There will certainly be many students who would’ve tested +ve just days before the exam. In such a scenario, it will be a risk to let them attempt the exam with others. At the same time, the careers of these students can and should not be compromised.Such students will definitely not be in the correct state of mind to attempt the exam. With soaring temperatures and body aches, how do we expect them to give their 100% for an exam they prepared for 2 years?Some students will definitely be in containment zones and as per the containment zone guidelines, strict lockdown measures have to be implemented in those areas regardless of the person concerned. So if you are allowing a student, who might be a covid +ve patient, and diluting the guidelines of containment zones, what’s the point of having any in the first place?Most of the students will have grandparents and infants/children in their homes. In most homes, it is impossible to maintain social distancing inside the house that way you are basically exposing even more people to a health risk should a student contact the virus during the examination process and returning home.Asymptomatic patients have been a major concern for the world throughout this pandemic. How will the authorities deal with them?The bad performances due to fear and virus may lead students to drastic steps, even suicide.Is the government ready to take responsibility of many mishaps and take complete responsibility for the medical care of not only students but others they pose a risk to too?Other major events like the IPL and the political events, the court hearings and the school/colleges all remain closed due to the fear of virus. We students of these exams are not immune to this and we should not be exposed to health risk of such drastic magnitude.The IITs have proposed the plan of ODD semester year and hence proposed that the new session can start from January, 2021. Then, what’s the hurry to conduct the exams in such a worsening environment?Many states have shown their inability to conduct the exam amidst this situation and their advices cannot and should not be ignored.When students will be called in batches, the first batch will have to report very early. For them, the examination is no more of 3 hours but of 5-6 hours with masks and gloves on.There are no accommodation arrangements for parents. They will have to be constantly exposed to the risk of contracting the virus while simultaneously being anxious about their wardsNot everyone can afford private transportation cost for hundreds of kilometers. Such students and guardians will have to face unnecessary problems, which can easily be avoided should the exams be delayed to another date when the situation will be better and conduciveThere are many students with preexisting ailments like asthma. How are they supposed to wear masks for such long hours? Additionally, students with ailments like diabetes are also exposed to far greater risk of life. How can these be tackled?The dispersal after the exams are always very crowded and hence dangerous. You can’t certainly contain a crowd of such young students anxious to talk about their performance after the exam. What SOP will deal with this?The exam conducting personnel may themselves be asymptomatic. In that case, it will be a huge risk.Many parts of India are suffering from major floods. States like Assam, Bihar, and West Bengal are facing additional crisis. In this situation, how are the students supposed to give the exam with a healthy state of mind? Can they even appear for it with no transportation, no electricity, and no internet?Health should always have to be the first priority. What’s the use of a rank card when you can’t cherish it?Additionally, most of the schools, colleges, medical centers, grounds, banquet halls etc. have already been converted and are being used actively as quarantine and health centers for patients. How are they supposed to be utilized if they are actively in use for fight against this pandemic?Thermal scanners can be very easy to escape. If someone takes antipyretics (E.g. calpol or paracetamol) just before the exam, their body temperature will decrease to normal levels and hence that student can very easily escape the thermal scanning.In the SOP it was mentioned that if someone has high temperature, then that person will be shifted to a new room. This procedure will put a mental pressure on the students. They will spend the whole time thinking that they might be covid positive (as they will get scared). This will seriously hamper their performance.If someone from JEE Main gets covid positive (after giving exam) then how will that student can give NDA,NEET, JEE Advanced, BITSAT, NEST and other entrance exams? He cant give his 100% . Many students are droppers who have wasted many years. This can lead to “psychological trauma “CBSE Exams were cancelled, CA and IAS exams are postponed till December and very recently, two law exams were postponed (BAR and AILET) even though there are far less students compared to NEET and JEE. Then why is NEET and JEE not being postponed till December?Most of the centers are in containment zone so it will be difficult to conduct exams in these centers and in future more centers will come under containment zone so lot of students will not be able to appear for exam. We would like to know how many CENTRES have been increased to accommodate students as per the guidelines. As per the recent MHA GUIDELINES dt 29/07/2020 all the educational institutions across India are closed till 31st August so there is lot of uncertainty if the same will be extended further or not and how will they decide and plan once the admit card will be issued We saw quite a few exams being conducted amidst this pandemic and the results were a disaster (as expected). Following are some visuals that will explain why we students have been right all along:  The above pictures are just a few examples of the ground reality SOP in exams, namely SSLC, RBSE, KCET, IIITH-UGEE,KEAM Following are the media reports showing how these exams were not at all successful:  The above reports clearly indicate how the mishaps deliberately resulted in disaster when the simply could’ve been avoided, had the authorities been not adamant to conduct the exams while the situation was worsening. CONCLUSION The students demand two things: The authorities listen to the just demand of students and postpone JEE and NEET to a later date post-September when it is safe to conduct the exams. Prioritise HEALTH OVER EXAMS.The authorities bridge the communication gap between the students and them. They come out and establish a decent communication with students so that students are not misled and not end up wasting their time and efforts. I therefore request the Govt on behalf of Parents and students to kindly review the current situation in the interest of lakhs of students from across India before the admit cards are issued so that students can plan accordingly I would request MHA also to give clarity if the exams are going to be conducted or not as the same has not been clarified in their recent Notification dt 31/07/2020 as there is an emerging evidence on airborne spread of COVID 19 as acknowledged by WHO and also Community spread as told by IMA. I would also request HRD minister to discuss with all the concerned authorities NTA JEE NEET for conducting Exams I request the Govt to not conduct Exam during such pandemic situation and postpone it till the situation is normal Saving life of students is more important right now .  Anubha Shrivastava Sahai is an advocate and child-rights activists, and also the President of India Wide Parents Association. She tweets @anubha1812 Subscribe to LiveLaw, enjoy Ad free version and other unlimited features, just INR 599 Click here to Subscribe. All payment options available.loading….Next Storylast_img read more

Delhi High Court Issues Notice On Plea By ‘The Quint’ Against New IT Rules On Digital News Media

first_imgTop StoriesDelhi High Court Issues Notice On Plea By ‘The Quint’ Against New IT Rules On Digital News Media LIVELAW NEWS NETWORK19 March 2021 1:00 AMShare This – xThe Delhi High Court on Friday issued notice on a petition filed by Quint Digital Media Ltd, which owns the online news portal ‘The Quint’, challenging the constitutional validity of the Information Technology (Guidelines For Intermediaries And Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021, to the extent it regulates the publishers of news and current affairs content.A division bench comprising…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginThe Delhi High Court on Friday issued notice on a petition filed by Quint Digital Media Ltd, which owns the online news portal ‘The Quint’, challenging the constitutional validity of the Information Technology (Guidelines For Intermediaries And Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021, to the extent it regulates the publishers of news and current affairs content.A division bench comprising Chief Justice DN Patel and Justice Jasmeet Singh issued notice on the petition and tagged it along with an earlier petition filed by the publisher of ‘The Wire’ against the same rules. The bench has sought for the reply of the Union Government on the plea by the next date of hearing, April 16. Ritu Kapur, the Director and Co-Founder of ‘The Quint’, is also a petitioner in the case.Though Senior Advocate Nitya Ramakrishnan sought for interim protection for the petitioners from coercive steps under Part 3 of the Rules(which deals with digital media), the bench said that it will not grant it as of now. However the bench expressed that in case any coercive steps are taken, the petitioners will be at liberty to seek an urgent hearing.The petition, filed through Advocate Prasanna S and Vinoothna Vinjam, contends that the new Rules are ultra vires the Constitution of India as well as the Information Technology Act to the extent they impose unreasonable and arbitrary restrictions on digital news media. It is highlighted that the parent statute of the Rules, the IT Act, does not deal with digital media, and hence, the executive rules made under the said Act to regulate online news publishers are invalid.The Rules amount to an “overreach” as they incorporate the vague and arbitrary norms under the Press Council Act and the Programme Code, that too by way of subordinate legislation, in order to vest “draconian powers and control” with the executive, contends the petition.”The regulations are frontally offensive to Article 19(1)(a) and Article 14. A restriction on the Fundamental Right to free speech andexpression can only be to the extent strictly necessary for the stated interests in Article 19(2). Digital news portals such as the Quint, published by the Petitioners, are already subject to all the civil and criminal laws enacted for those interests. Therefore, the IT Rules, 2021 cannot be in the interest of Article 19(2). They are only meant to be a ruse for the State to enter and directly control the content of digital news portals”,  the plea states.”The IT Rules, 2021 are manifestly unjust”, the petition says, “as they create a parallel and extra-legal adjudicatory mechanism, which has at its apex, the Central Government. This also violates the principle of separation of powers”.Last week, the Kerala High Court had issued notice to the Centre on a petition filed by LiveLaw challenging the new IT Rules. The High Court also passed an interim order restraining coercive action under Part 3 of the Rules against LiveLaw, its Chief Editor MA Rashid and Managing Editor Manu Sebastian, saying that they were publishers of law reports and legal literature.Click here to read/download the petition   Next Storylast_img read more

Prep Sports Roundup: 4/28

first_img FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailBaseballRegion 12RICHFIELD, Utah-Jaron Ross belted a pair of home runs and the Richfield Wildcats bested Emery 10-6  Wednesday in Region 12 baseball action. Ross drove in six runs for the Wildcats with Max Robinson earning the win on the mound for Richfield. Trevin Wakefield and Wade Stilson had 2 RPI apiece in defeat for the Spartans.Region 14ROOSEVELT, Utah-Zach Foote went yard and the Union Cougars outlasted Juab 9-8 in Region 14 baseball play Wednesday. Maddux Russell and Kason Maycock drove in two runs apiece in victory for the Cougars. Rayden Deets took the win on the mound for Union. Dalin Ludlow and Porter Bowles had 2 RBI apiece in defeat for the Wasps.MANTI, Utah-Braxton Henningson drove in a pair of runs and the Manti Templars surged past American Leadership 7-1 Wednesday in Region 14 baseball action. Jason Nelson drove in another run for Manti and earned the win on the mound for the Templars.2-A CentralSALINA, Utah-The North Sevier Wolves completed a postponed game by edging the Millard Eagles 3-2 Wednesday in 2-A Central play.Non-RegionBEAVER, Utah-Jake Eichorn homered and Treyson Hunter added 2 RBI as the Beaver Beavers waxed the Snow Canyon JV 7-3 Wedneday in non-region baseball action. Caleb Robinson earned the win on the mound for the Beavers.GUNNISON, Utah-Ryker Stewart belted a grand slam, one of his two home runs for the Gunnison Valley Bulldogs, as they overpowered North Sanpete 17-6 in non-region baseball play Wednesday. Janzen Keisel added two homers for the Bulldogs while Creed Mogle also went yard for Gunnison Valley in the victory. Mogle also earned the win on the mound for the Bulldogs. Brayden Olsen homered in the loss for the Hawks.SoftballNon-RegionFILLMORE, Utah-Kynlee Rowley’s 3 RBI led the way as the Parowan Rams smacked Millard 10-3 Wednesday in non-region softball action. Halle Warner, Mary Stephenson and Hailey Flynn each drove in runs for the Eagles in defeat.MANTI, Utah-Katie Larsen homered and Tiffany Hermansen earned the win in the circle as the Manti Templars pounded Class 6-A Taylorsville 10-0 in non-region softball play Wednesday. Sadie Cox drove in two more runs in the win for the Templars.KAMAS, Utah-Indee Jones went yard and the South Summit Wildcats pounded Gunnison Valley 14-4 Wednesday in non-region softball action. Kennei Knudsen drove in a run for the Bulldogs in the loss.PRICE, Utah-Amya Prettyman homered and the Carbon Dinos blanked North Sanpete 4-0 in non-region softball play Wednesday. Haven Byerly also drove in a run for Carbon and Brooke Moosman earned the win in the circle for the Dinos. April 28, 2021 /Sports News – Local Prep Sports Roundup: 4/28 Written bycenter_img Brad Jameslast_img read more

Hoboken, WNY, and Secaucus students named to Dean’s List

first_imgAlexa Colangelo of Hoboken was among more than 1,600 students who were named to The University of Scranton’s Dean’s List for the 2017 spring semester. The Dean’s List recognizes students for academic excellence. A student must have a grade point average of 3.5 or better with a minimum number of credit hours during the semester to make the Dean’s List.Colangelo is a senior economics major in the University’s College of Arts and Sciences.Several Secaucus students were named too.Jessie Koerner of Secaucus is a senior strategic communication major in the University’s College of Arts and Sciences.Taylor P. Doering of Secaucus is a junior occupational therapy major in the University’s Panuska College of Professional Studies.Hannah L. Narvacan of Secaucus is a senior occupational therapy major in the University’s Panuska College of Professional Studies.Briana C. Jimenez of West New York was also named. Jimenez is a sophomore psychology major in the University’s College of Arts and Sciences. The University of Scranton is a Jesuit university located in Northeastern Pennsylvania.last_img read more

Watch Holly Bowling Get Crazy On A 14-Minute ‘Sand’ Jam On 120-Year Old Piano [Premiere]

first_imgHolly Bowling is rocking it on her spring tour! The classically-trained pianist continues to work Phish and Grateful Dead songs into her setlists, not only interpreting the songs for solo piano but also improvising on them, as well as scoring specific jams to create a one-of-a-kind musical experience.With an upcoming performance at the Blue Note Jazz Club in New York, NY this Friday, May 13th, Bowling has shared some incredible footage from a recent show to get us excited! The footage features Bowling performing “Sand” at the Starlite in Southbridge, MA earlier this week, playing on a 120+ year old piano and even reaching inside to create some inventive sonic grooves. It’s improvisational music at its finest!Well that rocked! We can’t wait to catch Bowling in New York this Friday, May 13th! For more information about the upcoming show at the Blue Note Jazz Club, head HERE!Setlist: Holly Bowling at Starlite, Southbridge, MA – 5/9/16Set One: The Curtain With, Pebbles & Marbles, Row Jimmy, Sand, Taste, It’s Ice *Set Two: Dark Star > The Other One # > Dark Star > Wharf Rat > Scents & Subtle Sounds > Cassidy, Eyes of the World (6.18.74), Harry Hood **Encore: Squirming Coil# first time performed by Holly (one verse only)* w/ Kid A tease (Radiohead)** w/ Taste fakeout at start & teaselast_img read more

Moving toward financial health

first_imgThe Faculty of Arts and Sciences (FAS) is on track to achieve long-term financial health by the end of the 2011-12 academic year, Dean Michael D. Smith announced at a meeting of the FAS faculty.The FAS will end the current fiscal year in June with a balanced budget, Smith said Tuesday (May 11). And in a sign of continued improvement, the operating deficit for the coming fiscal year — estimated at $220 million 18 months ago but reduced to $80 million in February — has been slashed again to between $50 million and $55 million.Smith expects to achieve $15 to $20 million more in savings through the coming year to reduce the deficit to about $35 million by June 2011.“With a 12 percent reduction in the endowment distribution next year, FY11 will be our most difficult financial year,” Smith wrote in a letter to faculty and staff, referring to the fiscal year that begins July 1. “Over the past 18 months, we have made prudent, structural, long-term adjustments — and husbanded our reserves — in order to overcome this final financial challenge.“The good news is that we do not need a balanced budget in this most difficult year, since we can temporarily use our FAS reserves to preserve our core mission of research and teaching,” he continued. “Overall, the approach we have taken to righting our finances is working. We just need time, and our reserves will give us the time we need.“The challenge, therefore, is not to reach balance in FY11, but to do so soon thereafter. In particular, our projections show that we can achieve this goal by the end of FY12,” Smith announced, noting that the goal depended on a model that assumes the global economy would remain stable and payments from the University endowment would not continue to decrease.Smith also cited some achievements for this academic year, including:The approval of a new undergraduate concentration, biomedical engineering, and two new secondary fields: ethnic studies, and global health and health policy.The successful launch of the new Program in General Education, which continues to expand, now with 331 approved courses.The new College Fellows Program, which brought 22 top young scholars to campus to further their professional development and to teach undergraduates. Eight of them have since secured tenure-track positions.Smith also announced the creation of several new task forces. Ad hoc working groups will be formed to examine policies on earning credit toward sabbatical leave and the application of federal grant support to faculty salaries. A new Dean’s Faculty Resources Committee, made up of faculty across the FAS, will advise on emerging academic and fundraising priorities, proposed financial policies, and the state of the School’s overall resources.Summing up the year, Smith wrote, “While this has been a difficult period in many ways, it has also been a remarkably productive one. It is hard to express just how proud I am that so many people across the FAS helped make the past 18 months successful for our students in spite of the financial crisis. A Harvard education, for both our graduate and undergraduate students, has remained an experience unparalleled in its richness. And while our work is not yet complete, this significant success and the positive changes taking place across the FAS have positioned us well for the future.”last_img read more

U.S. methane emissions exceed government estimates

first_imgEmissions of methane from fossil fuel extraction and refining activities in the South Central United States are nearly five times higher than previous estimates, according to researchers at Harvard University and seven other institutions. Their study, published this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), also suggests that the contribution from livestock operations may be twice as high as previously thought.Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is produced through natural gas production and distribution, cattle farming, landfills, coal mining, manure management, and other anthropogenic and natural sources, though human activities are thought to contribute approximately 60 percent of the total.Overall, according to the new study, total methane emissions in the United States appear to be 1.5 times and 1.7 times higher than the amounts previously estimated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the international Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), respectively.The difference lies in the methodology. The EPA and EDGAR use a bottom-up approach, calculating total emissions based on “emissions factors” — the amount of methane typically released per cow or per unit of coal or natural gas sold, for example. The new study takes a top-down approach, measuring what is actually present in the atmosphere and then using meteorological data and statistical analysis to trace it back to regional sources.Generated by a large, multi-institutional team of researchers, the latest findings offer a comprehensive baseline for assessing policies designed to reduce greenhouse gases. They also point to a few areas where the assumptions built into recent emissions factors and estimated totals may be flawed.“The bottom-up and top-down approaches give us very different answers about the level of methane gas emissions,” notes lead author Scot M. Miller, a doctoral student in Earth and Planetary Sciences through the Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. “Most strikingly, our results are higher by a factor of 2.7 over the South Central United States, which we know is a key region for fossil-fuel extraction and refining. It will be important to resolve that discrepancy in order to fully understand the impact of these industries on methane emissions.”Along with carbon dioxide, methane is one of the most important greenhouse gases in terms of its potential to raise global temperatures.Miller is a 2007 graduate of Harvard College and earned a master’s degree in engineering sciences at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) in 2013. He studies in the lab of Steven C. Wofsy, Abbott Lawrence Rotch Professor of Atmospheric and Environmental Science at SEAS.“When we measure methane gas at the atmospheric level, we’re seeing the cumulative effect of emissions that are happening at the surface across a very large region,” says Wofsy, a co-author of the PNAS study. “That includes the sources that were part of the bottom-up inventories, but maybe also things they didn’t think to measure.”Miller and Wofsy, along with colleagues at the Carnegie Institution for Science, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and five other institutions, used a combination of observation and modeling to conduct their analysis.NOAA and the U.S. Department of Energy collect observations of methane and other gases from the tops of telecommunications towers, typically about as tall as the Empire State Building, and during research flights. The team combined this data with meteorological models of the temperatures, winds, and movement of air masses from the same time period, and then used a statistical method known as geostatistical inverse modeling to essentially run the model backward and determine the methane’s origin.The team also compared these results with regional economic and demographic data, as well as other information that provided clues to the sources — for example, data on human populations, livestock populations, electricity production from power plants, oil and natural gas production, production from oil refineries, rice production, and coal production. In addition, they drew correlations between methane levels and other gases that were observed at the time. For example, a high correlation between levels of methane and propane in the south-central region suggests a significant role for fossil fuels there.“This paper provides the most solid and the most detailed estimate to date of total U.S. methane emissions,” says co-author Anna M. Michalak, a faculty member in the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science. Michalak is also an associate professor of environmental Earth system science at Stanford University. “This was really, from beginning to end, just a very clean analysis.”Along with carbon dioxide, methane is one of the most important greenhouse gases in terms of its potential to raise global temperatures. It also encourages the formation of surface ozone in cities and affects other aspects of atmospheric chemistry.Seeking to establish a baseline against which to measure future change in methane emissions, the researchers compared observational data collected in 2007–08 with EDGAR and EPA data for the same year (using the revised EPA data for 2007–08 that was published in April 2013). Future studies will apply the same analysis to present-day data.“The beauty of the approach we’re using is that, because we’re taking measurements in the atmosphere, which carry with them a signature of everything that happened upwind, we get a very strong number on what that total should be,” says Michalak. “Now that we know the total does not equal the sum of the parts, that means that either some of those parts are not what we thought they were, or there are some parts that are simply missing from the inventories. It really offers an opportunity for governments to re-examine the inventories in light of what we now know.”In addition to Miller, Wofsy, and Michalak, co-authors included Eric A. Kort, S.M. ’05, Ph.D. ’11, who is now a faculty member at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Arlyn E. Andrews, Ph.D. ’00, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Stephen A. Montzka at NOAA’s Earth System Research Laboratory; Sebastien C. Biraud and Marc L. Fischer at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Janusz Eluszkiewicz and Thomas Nehrkorn at Atmospheric and Environmental Research in Lexington, Mass.; Greet Janssens-Maenhout at the European Commission Joint Research Centre in Italy; and Ben R. Miller, John B. Miller, and Colm Sweeney at the University of Colorado Boulder.last_img read more