(PhysOrg.com) — After three years of review, a committee representing the governing bodies of both chemistry and physics, has published a paper on Pure and Applied Chemistry, accepting the work of a collaborative team of physicists as proof of the creation of element 114 and element 116, finally allowing them both to be added to the official Periodic Table of Elements. © 2010 PhysOrg.com More information: IUPAC announcement: www.iupac.org/web/nt/2011-06-01_elements_114_116Discovery of the elements with atomic numbers greater than or equal to 113 (IUPAC Technical Report), Pure Appl. Chem., ASAP article, doi:10.1351/PAC-REP-10-05-01AbstractThe IUPAC/IUPAP Joint Working Party (JWP) on the priority of claims to the discovery of new elements 113–116 and 118 has reviewed the relevant literature pertaining to several claims. In accordance with the criteria for the discovery of elements previously established by the 1992 IUPAC/IUPAP Transfermium Working Group (TWG), and reinforced in subsequent IUPAC/IUPAP JWP discussions, it was determined that the Dubna-Livermore collaborations share in the fulfillment of those criteria both for elements Z = 114 and 116. A synopsis of experiments and related efforts is presented. Nuclear missing link created at last: Superheavy element 117 (Update) This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further The two as yet unnamed new elements, currently going by ununquadium and ununhexium, are now the two heaviest elements on the table (289 and 292 atomic mass, respectively) and both are highly radioactive.114 had several groups which claimed to have produced it in a lab, but just two teams had sufficient evidence for the examining committee to give approval; the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. The two groups collaborated on the project and both groups were also credited with offering proof of the existence of 116 as well.The new elements came about as the result of hurtling lighter atoms together in an accelerator. To forge 116, they threw curium (96 protons) and calcium (20 protons) together, which shortly thereafter decayed to 114. But they also made 114 by knocking calcium and plutonium together.Properties of the new elements, such as how they might react with other elements, have yet to be discovered however, as both last less than a second before decaying away to other elements.Both new elements have actually been known to exist for quite some time; as far back as 1999 different groups were said to have produced it in a lab, and most of the work done by the collaborating teams was done back in 2004 and 2006.The two latest additions to the periodic table ignite new blather about the possible existence of a so-called “island of stability” where chemists and physicists debate the possibility of much heavier elements eventually joining the table; ones that will be extremely stable, and thus ripe for use right out of the box.Traditionally the folks that produce a new element are the ones that get to name it, so for 114 and 116, that will be the next step; likely something Russian, since the Russian team gets most of the credit, and as far as the approval committee goes, it’s likely to be a smooth process, so long as, according to one committee member, “it’s not something too weird.” Citation: After three years of review, two new elements finally added to the Periodic Table (2011, June 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-06-years-elements-added-periodic-table.html
(PhysOrg.com) — The Le Mans endurance race is a 24-hour competition that features cars that typically have an engine that comes in at over five liters. One team, known as the Project 56 group, has created a car that has an engine with only 1.6 liters. The car, which has been dubbed the DeltaWing concept car, manages to run with its reduced engine capacity by significantly improving the aerodynamics of the vehicle and reducing the weight of the car to increase the fuel efficiency. Car Buyers Say Silence Isn’t Golden Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The cars 1.6-liter turbocharged engine is roughly 300 horsepower, which is about half of the horses found inside the engines of a typical competitor at Le Mans. The car also features a slim front end attached to a narrower track than the rear, which makes the car aerodynamic and makes the car easier to move forward. The car seats two, a driver and a backup driver. The technology in concept cars that tests well at Le Mans has a decent chance of showing up in production cars, though no plans have been made at this time. © 2010 PhysOrg.com The cars has been given the 56th spot in the 2012 24 hours of Le Mans races starting grid, a spot usually reserved for experimental cars that are powered by a variety of alternative technologies. Since the race is about endurance, as much as it is about staying power as it is about speed a car in any spot has the potential to win the 24 hour long race. This spot is good for a car that is high on fuel efficiency, since the race rewards cars that have to make fewer fuel stops. Citation: DeltaWing concept car to race at Le Mans (2011, June 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-06-deltawing-concept-car-le.html More information: deltawingracing.com/
Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B (Phys.org) —A team of researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology has devised an experiment that suggests that dogs are able to respond to the direction in which human voice moves. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, the team describes their experiments with multiple dogs and what their findings suggest. © 2014 Phys.org The results suggest that the dogs were able to discern the direction that the voice was traveling and to understand the connection between it and the source of the treat, a feat that chimpanzees and wolves are not able to replicate. Explore further Does your dog love you? More information: Federico Rossano, Marie Nitzschner, Michael Tomasello, Domestic dogs and puppies can use human voice direction referentially, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 7 May 2014. rspb.royalsocietypublishing.or … .1098/rspb.2013.3201Press release This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Study suggests dogs able to follow direction of human voice (2014, May 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-05-dogs-human-voice.html In this experiment, the dogs know that food is hidden in one of these boxes – but they don’t know in which one. To find the tasty snack, they are following the human voice. Credit: MPI f. Evolutionary Anthropology Dogs and humans have a special relationship going back thousands of years. Scientists believe that over the course of all those years, it’s possible that dogs have learned to communicate with people and vice-versa, in ways that aren’t fully understood. One example was a prior study that found that dogs are able to follow a person’s gaze, or in many instances a pointed finger. In this latest effort, the researchers sought to determine if dogs are also able to make inferences based solely on the direction in which human communications are traveling.The experiment involved one human and one dog (at a time). The human kneeled behind a wood plank while the dog sat restrained behind a line several feet away, facing the wood plank. Between the two was a red curtain that served to prevent the dog from seeing the actions of the person. As the experiment began, the person stood up and showed the dog a food treat, instructing it to pay attention. The person then crouched down behind the plank as the curtain was drawn, grabbed one of two black smell-proof boxes and placed the food treat inside of it. The boxes were then set at the edges of the plank, within sight of the dog when the curtain was opened. The human, still hidden behind the plank, changed position to directly face one of the boxes and spoke encouraging words to the dog. Then, the dog was released to fetch the treat. Adult dogs went straight to the correct box on average 7.6 times out of 12. With puppies used to being around people, the average was even better, 8.1 out of 12 tries. Puppies that had not been around people, however, did no better than chance.
Kelong Zhu, Christopher A. O’Keefe, V. Nicholas Vukotic, Robert W. Schurko and Stephen J. Loeb from the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Windsor have designed and characterized a molecular shuttle that functions both in solution and when placed within a rigid chemical structure called a metal-organic framework. Their work appears in Nature Chemistry.This research makes use of the rotaxane architecture, a MIM comprised of a ring-shaped molecule and two recognition sites. Rotaxanes have two components: A molecule is threaded through a macrocyclic ring, like a wheel with an axle. The macrocycle moves linearly along the axle between two recognition sites. Zhu, et al. used a 24-crown-8 macrocycle and benzimidazole recognition sites on the axle.The authors used a metal-organic framework (MOF) as a rigid structure in which they can make the axle of the rotaxane between struts on the MOF. MOFs provide synthetic versatility while maintaining structural integrity in a diversity of environments.Their prior research indicated that they could control the movement of the molecular shuttle using heat without disturbing the MOF and rotaxane architecture. Zhu, et al. began by constructing and testing their molecular shuttle in solution to determine the translational energy barrier as well as the translation rate. They, then, made the same rotaxane within a Zn(II)-based MOF and compared its translational energy and rate to the system in solution.For solution studies, they took a 13C labeled compound and studied its translational rate with respect to temperature using variable temperature 13C NMR. Results showed that the energy barrier for molecular shuttling was 7.7 kcal mol-1 and the rate was 1.4 x 107 s-1 at 298 K.The next step was to construct the MOF-rotaxane system to see if the molecular shuttle worked in solid-state conditions. They took the MIM used for solution studies and combined it with Zn(II) tetrafluoroborate hydrate using a known procedure for making a Zn(II)-based MOF, and obtained yellow crystals of product in excellent yields. Citation: Toward solid-state molecular circuitry: Molecular shuttle within a metal-organic framework (2015, May 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-05-sold-state-molecular-circuitry-shuttle-metal-organic.html One necessary step after the synthesis was to neutralize one of the benzimidazole recognitions sites. During synthesis, one site obtained a +1 charge while the other did not. 24-crown-8 coordinates preferentially to a positively charged species, meaning that it would remain on the positively charged site and never traverse to the neutral recognition site. Zhu, et al. devised a way to neutralize the benzimidazole linker without damaging the structural integrity of the MOF-rotaxane. The neutralized final product was labeled UWDM-4.The structure, based on X-ray analysis, indicates that the structure has a Zn4O cluster. Carboxylate groups coordinate to this cluster, triphenyl struts form the sides of the cubic structure, and the benzimidazole recognition sites along the rotaxane axle connect the cubes.Finally, the UWDM-4 shuttling mechanism was tested in the same way that the shuttle in solution was tested. UWDM-4 was 13C enriched at the recognition sites and tested using variable temperature 13C solid-state NMR. Results revealed that the shuttle worked in this confined structure, although the translational energy barrier and rate are different from the solutions studies. The energy barrier for UWDM-4 was 14.1 kcal mol-1 and the rate was 283 s-1 at 298 K. The authors speculate that the difference between the solid and liquid states have to do with enthalpic and entropic effects that may be due to steric hindrance and molecular conformation restrictions in the confined solid system. Additionally, solvent effects likely play a role in the energy and rate differences.This research shows that molecular shuttles are feasible within a framework that restricts movement and flexibility of the rotaxane axle, and restricts the distance between neighboring molecules, while still allowing for the translational movement of the shuttle. This provides a compelling case for the practical application of MIMs for molecular circuitry. © 2015 Phys.org (Phys.org)—In 1959 Moore observed that from the time the integrated circuit was invented, the number of transistors per square inch doubled about every eighteen months. A contemporary of Moore, Feynman, suggested that denser circuitry could be achieved by making molecular-scale circuitry. Since that time, mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) have proven a viable contender for eventually making molecular-based circuitry, including molecular switches. However, most molecular switches are made and studied in solution. More information: “A molecular shuttle that operates inside a metal-organic framework” Nature Chemistry, 2015: DOI: 10.1038/nchem.2258AbstractA ‘molecular shuttle’ is an interlocked molecular assembly in which a macrocyclic ring is able to move back and forth between two recognition sites. This large-amplitude translational motion was first characterized in solution in 1991. Since that report, many mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) have been designed, synthesized and shown to mimic the complex functions of macroscopic switches and machines. Here, we show that this fundamental concept—the translational motion of a molecular shuttle—can be organized, initiated and made to operate inside a crystalline, solid-state material. A metal–organic framework (MOF) designated UWDM-4 was prepared that contains a rigid linker that is a molecular shuttle. It was demonstrated by variable-temperature 1H-13C cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) and 13C 2D exchange correlation spectroscopy (EXSY) solid-state NMR at 21.1 T on a 13C-enriched sample that the macrocyclic ring undergoes rapid shuttling along the rigid axle built between struts of the framework. Metal-organic framework with a fixed composition despite initial concentration of components Explore further Journal information: Nature Chemistry MOF materials are commonly constructed from a combination of rigid linking struts (green) and metal nodes (brown). Credit: Kelong Zhu et al. Nature Chemistry, 2015: doi:10.1038/nchem.2258 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(Phys.org)—A team of researchers made up of representatives from Google, Lawrence Berkeley National Labs, Tufts University, UC Santa Barbara, University College London and Harvard University reports that they have successfully created a scalable quantum simulation of a molecule for the first time ever. In a paper uploaded to the open access journal Physical Review X, the team describes the variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) approach they used to create and solve one of the first real-world quantum computer applications. Computed H2 energy curve and errors. Credit: Physical Review X (2016). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.6.031007 The researchers are aiming to create a quantum computer that is capable not only of computing single molecule energies, but entire chemical systems. As one example, they would like to be able to simulate what happens as bacteria do their work in producing fertilizer—a process they note that currently consumes approximately 2 percent of global energy produced. That would mean developing a universal quantum computer, which, not coincidently, is a goal Google has set for itself. Hardware and software schematic of the variational quantum eigensolver. Credit: Physical Review X (2016). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.6.031007 Explore further More information: P. J. J. O’Malley et al. Scalable Quantum Simulation of Molecular Energies, Physical Review X (2016). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.6.031007ABSTRACTWe report the first electronic structure calculation performed on a quantum computer without exponentially costly precompilation. We use a programmable array of superconducting qubits to compute the energy surface of molecular hydrogen using two distinct quantum algorithms. First, we experimentally execute the unitary coupled cluster method using the variational quantum eigensolver. Our efficient implementation predicts the correct dissociation energy to within chemical accuracy of the numerically exact result. Second, we experimentally demonstrate the canonical quantum algorithm for chemistry, which consists of Trotterization and quantum phase estimation. We compare the experimental performance of these approaches to show clear evidence that the variational quantum eigensolver is robust to certain errors. This error tolerance inspires hope that variational quantum simulations of classically intractable molecules may be viable in the near future. Google combines two main quantum computing ideas in one computer © 2016 Phys.org Citation: First completely scalable quantum simulation of a molecule (2016, July 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-07-scalable-quantum-simulation-molecule.html As research continues with the development of a true quantum computer, some in the field have turned their attention to selecting certain types of problems that such computers could solve, as opposed to what are now being called classical computers. One such problem is solving the molecular electronic structure problem, which as Google Quantum Software Engineer Ryan Babbush notes in a blog post involves searching for the lowest electron energy configuration of a given molecule. What this means in practice is using a machine to compute the energies of molecules—doing so for some, such as methane, is relatively easy and can be done very quickly on a classical computer, but others, such as propane, can take days. This makes it an ideal test case for a quantum computer.To calculate molecular energies on a quantum computer, the researchers used the VQE approach because it translates well as a quantum equivalent of a neural network, i.e., quantum bits could be used to represent molecular wave functions. Once they had built and programmed the system, they tested it by computing the energy of a hydrogen molecule. Their results very closely matched prior results found using classical computers. Journal information: Physical Review X This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
by Alexandra Parker Getting to The Art of It: The Carter Burden Gallery Audio PlayerYour browser version does not support the audio element00:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume. 8.23.19 6:00am Artists of all ages get up every day and make works worthy of galleries and museums. One gallery in Chelsea exclusively shows work from artists over 60. For WFUV’s Getting to the Art of it, Alex Parker reports…
Kick languor out of your sweltering summery Sundays. Giggles, laughter and a lot of madness await you as the Sunday evening brings in a deluge of hilarious acts, that too by Delhi’s best comedians. Doubly whammy! We got pally with the host and stand up comic, Nishant ‘Joke’ Singh to get you a sneak peak.Being the funny guy everywhere can pose as a challenge one day. So goes the story of Nishant aka Nishant ‘Joke’ Singh. He is not Singh and Joke, well who ever had that surname? But that’s another story. Back in 2009, when Russell Peters, the Canadian actor-comedian toured India, our Joke Singh didn’t even know who Peters was, till a girl in his media company poked him to become one. That was enough for him to give up on his job to live out as a full-time stand-up comic! Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The funny guy in him didn’t take too long to realise that it was his calling. By the end of 2009, when Open Mic, a live show where professional stand up comics perform and the newbies are entertained every now and then, our Joke Singh forayed into the spotlight for the first time. ‘ Out of 25 jokes, 5 really worked out that day,’ he says with a whiff of mischief, adding that even now before getting onto the stage, he doesn’t like talking to anybody for the last ten-fifteen minutes. Well, all that anxiety melts out into a relaxed and rejuvenating evening for his audience as he delivers in his quirky interactive style. ‘I like to keep my audience upbeat and involve them in my acts. At times, it backfires. But that’s a part of show life,’ says the comedian. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixHe is one of the prominent face amidst Delhi stand up comedy circles. Is performing live with competing comics, daunting? The perky comic got back saying, ‘Every stand up comedian in Delhi has his own flavour to his style of comedy.’ While he digs up fun with his lively and interactive acts, his peers bring up their style with Punjabi humor, jokes on marriages, satire and a myriad other subjects. Comedy Central, the international channel for stand up comedy went on air in India more than a year ago. Has it opened up newer avenues for stand up comedy? In Nishant’s view, ‘Open Mic gives a freedom to the stand-up comics. It’s their style that they portray without any shackles.’ He doubts that broadcast media would grant that much freedom to artists. He is weary of censor which curbs the right of an artist to bring up satires on politics and other imperative issues ; something that they enjoy in Open Mic. Still he appreciates the first round of Hindi comedy shows in India that gave the limelight to artists like Raju Srivastav. ‘But it’s long way to go as Indian broadcast comedy now depends mostly on pun oriented humour, made for the masses,’ rues Nishant. Adding, the international artists work on the same one-hour material for their shows over a year, while our artists in broadcast are made to pan out humour five days a week. His brand of humour comes in English backed with Hindi punchlines, depending upon the audience. The night will a riot of laughter when comedians come together with their takes on everyday things around and tickle your funny bone. You better not miss out!DETAILTimings: 8 pm When: 28 April Where: Cafe Morrison
Kolkata: In a bid to ensure swift draining of rainwater during the monsoon, Mayor Sovan Chatterjee held a meeting with state Irrigation minister Soumen Mahapatra and other state government agencies, at the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) headquarters on Friday afternoon.”We have conducted a meeting with the Irrigation minister, along with other government agencies such as Public Works Department (PWD), Kolkata Improvement Trust (KIT), Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation (CESC) and others, to ensure proper drainage of rainwater during monsoons. The task can be carried out effectively through a coordinated effort,” Chatterjee Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightssaid.It has been learnt that Chatterjee has urged the Irrigation minister to clean up the clogged canals in the city with priority. “We have to ensure that during heavy rainfall, the water is able to pass through the gully pits into the underground drainage system, so that we can use our booster pumping station, to pump the water into the river through these canals,” he maintained.The Kolkata Environment Improvement Investment Program (KEIIP), with the help of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), has integrated a few pumping stations, while several pipelines have been cleansed during the dry weather. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedPump capacities have also been increased. Chatterjee is hopeful that this will contribute to achieving good results.State Irrigation minister Soumen Mahapatra said “The state government has already started preparations from the month of February. Our control room has been made functional. We have also taken a decision to monitor the canals with the use of drones. We monitor canals throughout the year and implement cleaning process from time totime.”The Mayor has directed all the other agencies to complete all digging work before June 15. “Monsoon will soon set in and carrying on work by digging roads for utility services will cause serious damage to them. So, it is feasible not to do such work during the monsoon,” Chatterjee added.
Kolkata: Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee held a meeting with Namashudra Vikas Parishad at Nabanna on Monday.Sources said there were discussions over certain issues with the representatives who were led by Mukul Chandra.It is learnt that they have placed a demand for the formation of a development board to ensure further progress in their region. There was also discussion over various matters in regard to the community.Sources added that there were talks about the recent Assam’s National Register of Citizens as well. The Namashudra Vikas Parishad members had protested against the exclusion of the names of 40 lakh people from the final draft by staging a demonstration at Jalpaiguri.
A unique Book – ‘The Adventures of Donna the Dolphin Vol 1- The Challenge’ successfully made its mark at the World Book Fair 2016. The innovative book uses all three learning styles – visual, kinaesthetic and audio. Assuredly it is book that will make you jump with joy along with the dolphins that dive into the sea and the sharks attacking at your finger tips . It offers an amazing experience for children to closely feel the marine life while reading the story. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Sameena Shaikh an Entrepreneur from the City of Lucknow published this book for children. An elated Sameena Shaikh told us about the experience of having ‘Donna’ at the book fair, she said, “It feels like a dream come true. The appreciation and success of the book has this is where I belong , books and readers. I had a lovely experience being a part of this global extravaganza.” The book has been worded by Viveik Pandit, writer author also from the city of Nawabs has 10 books to his credit. It is available at New Delhi World Book Fair 2016 with Sterling Publishers, a 49-year old company, one of the leading publishers of children books. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe uniqueness of the book apart from the fun story lies in the word meanings in flaps, coupled with drop-downs with extra information of the sea world. There are beautiful paintings that explain the text and help in sensitivity building among kids with a subtle moral. The story narration can be downloaded from the website is also helpful in pronunciations and story-telling. The storyline builds curiosity especially by the usage of flaps and drop downs. Speech bubbles have been also used to illustrate conversations. It is a green book as printed on recycled paper and the paper engineered and crafted to make dolphins jump and sharks attack. Besides serving the purpose of a fun story and imparting knowledge, this book aims to revive and refresh, book-reading culture among children. The book was short-listed for the Printweek India Awards , Mumbai 2015. It has been has been purchased by many schools in Lucknow for their School Libraries. “I have done book reading sessions in schools like La Martiniere Boys, La Martiniere Girls, Seth M R Jaipuria School, branches of CMS etc to reach to as many children as possible. The children, teachers, Principals, parents and grandparents have appreciated the book,” said Shaikh. The book was recently showcased for the children at an exclusive event at the Lucknow Literature Carnival 2015. It was for the first time a children’s book featured at the Lucknow Literature Carnival.